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AMPHOS 21, SPAIN

INTERFACING                                                                                                                            stored is an essential piece of information
MULTIPHYSICS AND                                                                                                                       in the pre-injection assessment of a
GEOCHEMISTRY FOR                                                                                                                       geological storage location.
THE OIL AND GAS                                                                                                                        	 There are a number of international
INDUSTRY                                                                                                                               projects devoted to evaluating the
                                                                                                                                       feasibility of CO2 injection in the
In deep subsurface CO2 storage, retention rate is                                                                                      subsurface. Various numerical models have
dependent on which of four trapping mechanisms                                                                                         been created to analyze porous media flow
                                                                                                                                       and to assess the feasibility and long-term
dominate in a specific reservoir. AMPHOS 21 used                                                                                       behavior of deep geological storage and
                                                                                                                                       sequestration of CO2.
multiphysics simulation to evaluate the different trapping                                                                             	 Applications involving porous media
                                                                                                                                       frequently involve several coupled
mechanics and the effect of injection point locations on                                                                               physics phenomena such as fluid flow,
                                                                                                                                       solute and heat transport, elastic and
the retention rate and safety of CO2 storage.                                                                                          plastic mechanical deformations, and
                                                                                                                                       geochemical reactions. Handling all
by JORGE MOLINERO, AMPHOS 21                Contributing Authors: Álvaro Sainz,                                                        the different physical and chemical
                                            Elena Abarca, Fidel Grandía,                                                               processes and their interactions in a single
                                            Orlando Silva, Andres Idiart                                                               simulation is not a simple task. AMPHOS 21
                                                                                                                                       evaluated the feasibility of CO2 injection
Deep subsurface CO2 storage needs           retention: structural trapping (geological                                                 in the subsurface as a means for CO2
high retention rates to be a reliable       traps), solubility trapping, capillary                                                     storage using iCP, a software interface
solution for reducing CO2 emissions in the  trapping, and mineral trapping. The                                                        created by the company for modeling
atmosphere. Its retention rate and safety   relevance of these mechanisms will                                                         complex Thermo-Hydro-Chemical-
depends on which trapping mechanisms        vary with time due to CO2 migration,                                                       Mechanical (THCM) applications. The
are dominant in a specific reservoir.       dissolution, and reaction. The estimation                                                  interface uses both COMSOL Multiphysics®
Four trapping mechanisms contribute to      of the time evolution of mass of CO2                                                       software and PHREEQC software. For one
                                                                                                                                       of their projects, a miscible multiphase
FIGURE 1. Sketch of the deep geological structure targeted for the storage and                                                         flow approach was developed and
sequestration of supercritical CO2.                                                                                                    implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics.

FIGURE 2. 4D evolution of the     tChOe2stimrauplpaetidonbyfodristshoeluintijoenctiinonthweerlel siidnetnhtegmroidudnldewloactaetrion  èAPPLICATION FOR
brine. The results correspond to                                                                                                       DEEP GEOLOGICAL
                                                                                                                                       CARBON STORAGE AND
(see Figure 1).                                                                                                                        SEQUESTRATION

                                                                                                                                       In order to evaluate the performance of
                                                                                                                                       CO2 storage, multiphysics simulation was
                                                                                                                                       used to determine the influence of the
                                                                                                                                       injection point location on the evolution
                                                                                                                                       of the four trapping mechanisms. The
                                                                                                                                       CO2 trapped in free phase and dissolved
                                                                                                                                       in the resident brine and minerals in the
                                                                                                                                       reservoir can then be quantified by the
                                                                                                                                       capillarity of the CO2.
                                                                                                                                       	 First, the influence of the injection point
                                                                                                                                       location on the amounts of CO2 trapped
                                                                                                                                       by the structural, solubility, and capillary
                                                                                                                                       trapping mechanisms were assessed.
                                                                                                                                       Simulations were created to depict the
                                                                                                                                       fate of supercritical CO2 over a period of
                                                                                                                                       100 years after a pulse of 0.3 Kg∙s-1 was
                                                                                                                                       injected in a synthetic 2D dome at a depth
                                                                                                                                       of 2.5 km and over a period of 150 days
                                                                                                                                       (see Figure 1). Three different potential
                                                                                                                                       locations of injection wells were evaluated.
                                                                                                                                       	 The models reproduce the fate of the
                                                                                                                                       supercritical CO2 plume and depict the
                                                                                                                                       formation and spread of denser CO2-rich
                                                                                                                                       brine fingers (see Figure 2) for each of the
                                                                                                                                       four trapping mechanisms.

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