Particle Tracing Module
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: A scanning electron microscope samples images by scanning a target with a high-energy beam of electrons. The subsequent electron interactions produce signals such as secondary and back-scattered electrons that contain information about the sample surface topography. Electromagnetic lenses are used to focus this electron beam down to a spot about 10 nm wide on the sample surface.
The Particle Tracing Module extends the functionality of the COMSOL Multiphysics environment for computing the trajectory of particles in a fluid or electromagnetic field, including particle-particle and particle-field interactions. Any application-specific module combines seamlessly with the Particle Tracing Module and gives you access to additional modeling tools and fields to drive the particle motion.
Loss or gain of mass, spin or similar quantities may be represented as auxiliary variables and equations for each particle along its trajectory. Secondary emission of particles is included as an option, where the emission may depend on incident velocity and energy. Particles can be massless or have mass, where the movement is governed by Newtonian, Lagrangian, or Hamiltonian formulations from classical mechanics. Low-level access to the mathematical formalism is available for highly customized simulations.